The Schopenhauer Cure and the Four Noble Truths
Throughout history, human freedom or liberation has been a poignant philosophical discourse. There have been many religious leaders, psychologists, and philosophical thinkers who expounded theories and taught about it. Buddha and Schopenhauer are two such people.
According to Schopenhauer and Buddha, all human beings, whatever their race or country, are subject to suffering (dukkha), i. e., they suffer from disease, decay, death and anguish in various forms. Because this is such a universal malady common to all humanity, both the Buddha and Schopenhauer advocated a remedy that can be obtained by all mankind without any distinction.
Some scholars have taken Schopenhauer for his word when he claimed that his philosophy was fundamentally the same as Buddhism. In this research study, comparison will be drawn between the Four Noble Truths of Buddhism and some of the Key Themes in Schopenhauer’s Centre of Philosophy.
- Schopenhauer Cure, the Four Noble Truths
Works on Buddhism
All biblical references are to the Pāḷi Text Society unless otherwise stated (Pāḷi and Translation)
Aṅguttara Nikāya, ed. R. Morris and E. Hardy, 5 Vols., Oxford: Pāli
Text Society, 1885-1900. Trans. F. L. Woodward and E. M. Hare, The Book of the Gradual Sayings, 5
Vols., London: PTS. 1932-36.
Atthasālinī, by Buddhaghosa, ed. E. Muller, Oxford: PTS,
Dhammapada, ed. S. Sumanganla Thera, Oxford: PTS, 1914.
Dhammasaṅgani, ed. E. Muller, Oxford: PTS,1885. Trans. A. F.
Rhys Davids Caroline, Buddhist Psychological Ethics, London: PTS, 1900.
Dīgha Nikāya, ed. T. W. Rhys Davids and J. E. Carpenter, 3 Vols., Oxford: PTS, 1890-1911. Trans. T. W. and C. A. F. Rhys Davids, Dialogues of the Buddha, SBB., Vols. 2, 3, and 4, London: O. U. P, 1899-1921.
Itivuttaka, ed. E. Windisch, London: PTS, 1889.
Khuddakapāṭha, ed. H. Smith, Oxford: PTS, 1915.
Majjhima Nikāya, ed. V. Trenkner and R. Chalmers, 3 Vols., Oxford: PTS, 1948-51. Trans. I. B. Horner, Middle Length Sayings, 3 Vols., London: PTS, 1954-9. Trans. R. Chalmers, Further Dialogues of the Buddha, 2 Vols., London: PTS, 1888. Trans. K. E. Neumann, Die Reden Gotamo Buddho’s aus der mittleren Sammlung Majjhimanikāyo, Bande I und II, Leipzig, 1896-1900.
Papañcasūdanī, Comy. To Majjhima Nikāya, ed. J. H. Woods, D. Kosambi and I. B. Horner, 5 Vols., Oxford: PTS, 1922-38.
Paṭisambhidāmagga, ed. A. C. Taylor, Oxford: PTS, 2 Vols., 1905-7.
Saṃyutta Nikāya, ed. L. Feer, 6 Vols., Oxford: PTS, 1884-1904. Trans. C. A. F. Rhys Davids and F. L. Woodward, The Book of the Kindred Sayings, 5 Vols., Oxford: PTS, 1917-30.
Saṃyutta Nikāya (The Connected Discourses of the Buddha),
trans. Bhikkhu Bodhi. Boston: Wisdom Publication,
Suttanipāta, ed. D. Anderson and H. Smith, Oxford: PTS, 1948. Trans. V. Fausboll, SBE., Vol. 10, Part 2, Oxford, 1881.
Thera-Therīgāthā, ed. H. Oldenberg and R. Pischel, London: PTS, 1883. Trans. C. A. F. Rhys Davids, Psalms of the Early Buddhists, 2 Vols., London: PTS, 1903-13.
Vibhaṅga, ed. C. A. F. Rhys Davids, Oxford: PTS, 1904.
Vinaya Piṭaka, ed. H. Oldenberg, Vol. 1, Oxford: PTS, 1879-83. Trans. T. W. Rhys David and H. Oldernberg, SBE., Vols. 13, 17, 20, Oxford: PTS, 1881-5.
Abhidhammatthasaṅgaha, trans. S. Z. Aung and C. A. F. Rhys
Davids, Compendium of Philosophy, Oxford: PTS, 1910.
Milindapañha, ed. V. Trenkner, Oxford: PTS, 1928. (Note: It is included in Myanmarese edition of the Tipiṭaka as a book of the Khuddaka Nikāya, however, it does not appear in the Thai and Sri Lankan versions).
Visuddhimagga, ed. C. A. F. Rhys Davids, M. C. Foley, M. Hunt and M. Smith, Oxford: PTS, 2 Vols., 1911-13.
Works on Schopenhauerism
Works by Schopenhauer (Translations in English)
Schopenhauer, A. The Word as Will and Idea. Trans. R. B.
Haldane, M. A. & J. Kemp, M. A, Vols. 1, 2, 3.,
London: Routledge & Kegan Paul Limited, 1883.
Schopenhauer, A. The World as Will and Representation. Trans.
- F. J. Payne, 3rd edition, in two volumes: vols. 1-2,
New York: Dover Publications, 1969.
Schopenhauer, A. The Works of Schopenhauer. abridged and
edited by Will Durant. New York: Frederick Ungar
Schopenhauer, A. On the Will in Nature. Trans. E. F. J. Payne,
New York: Berg Publication, 1992.
Schopenhauer, A. On Freedom of the Human Will. Trans.
Konstantin Kolenda, New York: BobbsMerrill, 1960.
Schopenhauer, A. On the Basis of Morality. Trans. E. F. J. Payne,
New York: BobbsMerrill, 1965.
Schopenhauer, A. The Two Fundamental Problems of Ethics. (joint
Trans. Texts Publication of the 1839 and 1840 essays in book Form,1840). N.p.
Schopenhauer, A. On the Fourfold Root of the Sufficient
Reason. (second edition, Revised1847). N.p.
Schopenhauer, A. Parerga and Paralipomen. 2 vols, Trans. E. F.
- Payne, London: Clarendon Press, 1974.
Schopenhauer, A. The Fourfold Root of the Principle of
Sufficient Reason. Trans. E. F. J. Payne (Open Court, La
Salle, Illinois, 1974). N.p.
Schopenhauer, A. Counsels and Maxims. T. Bailey Saunders,
trans. Cosimo Classics, (1897) 2007.
Schopenhauer, A. The Wisdom of Life. T. Bailey Saunders,
trans. Echo Library, 2006.
Schopenhauer, A. On Human Nature. London: General Books
Schopenhauer, A. Essays and Aphorisms. R. J. Hollingdale,
trans. London: Penguin Classics, 1973.